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Дипломні, курсові
на замовлення

Дипломні та курсові
на замовлення

Роботи виконуємо якісно,
без зайвих запитань.

Замовити / взнати ціну Замовити

1. Give an oral summary of the following text.

The fundamental principles of Interpol

The purpose of the Organization

Under Article 2 of the Organization's Constitution, Interpol aims: To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities, within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law(1) crimes.

The limits of its actions are laid down in Article 3:

It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character. According to the interpretation given to Article 3, a political offence is one which is considered to be of a predominantly political nature because of the surrounding circumstances and underlying motives, even if the offence itself is covered by the ordinary criminal law in the country in which it was committed. This interpretation, based on the predominant aspects of the offence, was first mentioned in a resolution adopted by the Interpol General Assembly in 1951. A resolution adopted in 1984 states that, in general, offences are not considered to be political when they are committed outside a 'conflict area', and when the victims are not connected with the aims or objectives pursued by the offenders.

Members - Applying for membership

Article 4 states that: Any country may delegate as a Member to the Organization any official police body whose functions come  within the framework of activities of the Organization. The request for membership shall be submitted to the Secretary General by the appropriate governmental authority. Membership shall be subject to approval by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.

 

2. Translate the following text into Ukrainian.

Interpol's Principles of co-operation

International police co-operation within Interpol has always been conducted in accordance with the following guiding principles:

·Respect for national sovereignty. Co-operation is based on actions taken by the police forces in the various Member States, operating within their own national boundaries and in accordance with their own national laws.

·Enforcement of ordinary criminal law (Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution). The Organization's field of activity is limited to crime prevention and law enforcement in connection with ordinary criminal offences. This is the only basis on which there can be agreement between all Member States.

·Universality. Any Member State may co-operate with any other and co-operation must not be impeded by geographic or  linguistic factors.

·Equality of all Member States. All Member States are provided with the same services and have the same rights, irrespective of the size of their financial contribution to the Organization.

·Co-operation with other agencies. Co-operation is extended, through the National Central Bureaus, to any government agency concerned with combating ordinary criminal offences.

·Flexibility of working methods. Although governed by principles designed to ensure regularity and continuity, working methods are flexible enough to take account of the wide variety of structures and situations in different countries.

Respect for these principles means that Interpol cannot have teams of detectives with supranational powers who travel around investigating cases in different countries. International police co-operation depends on co-ordinated  action on the part of the Member States' law enforcement agencies, all of which may supply or request information  or services on different occasions.

 

3. Read the following text to speak on the administration and structure of Interpol.

Administration and structure of Interpol

Interpol has two inter-related governing bodies: the General Assembly and the Executive Committee. These are deliberative organs, with decision-making and supervisory powers, which meet periodically. The Organization's permanent departments constitute the General Secretariat which is responsible for implementing the decisions and recommendations adopted by the two deliberative organs and whose close contacts with the Interpol National Central Bureaus (NCBs) in the various Member States provide the framework for day-to-day international police co-operation. The NCBs, which are national bodies, are responsible for liaison between the Member States and with the General Secretariat.

The General Assembly

This is composed of delegates appointed by the governments of Member States. As Interpol's supreme governing body, it meets once a year and takes all the major decisions affecting general policy, the resources needed for international co-operation, working methods, finances and programmes of activities. It also elects the Organization's officers. Generally speaking, the Assembly takes decisions by a simple majority in the form of resolutions. Each Member State represented has one vote.

The Executive Committee

Thirteen members are elected by the General Assembly from among the Member States' delegates. They are elected on the basis of equitable geographic distribution and must be from different countries. The President is elected for a four-year term of office. He chairs General Assembly sessions and Executive Committee meetings, makes certain that decisions taken by the Organization's governing bodies are implemented, and maintains close contact with the Secretary General.Three Vice-Presidents and nine ordinary members are all elected for three-year terms of office.The Executive Committee usually meets three times a year. It ensures that General Assembly decisions are implemented, prepares the agenda for the General Assembly sessions, approves the programme of activities and draft budget before they are submitted to the Assembly, and supervises the management of the General Secretariat.

General Secretariat

This is the permanent administrative and technical body through which Interpol operates. It implements the decisions taken by the General Assembly and the Executive Committee, directs and co-ordinates action designed to combat international crime, centralizes information on crime and criminals, and maintains contact with national and international authorities. The General Secretariat comprises the Secretary General and the technical and administrative personnel needed to carry out the Organization's work. It is administered by the Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly for a five-year term of office. He is answerable to the General Assembly and the Executive Committee for the Organization's general and financial management. General Secretariat staff are international officials and, as such, must act solely in the interests of the Organization. The General Secretariat comprises an Executive Office and five Directorates, each responsible for specific tasks. The Executive Office and the Financial Controller answer directly to the Secretary General.

The Executive Office

This technical and administrative directorate, which supports the Secretary General in his work, comprises an Executive Office and secretariat; the Communication and Public Relations Sub-Directorate (see section on External Relations); and the Technical Adviser's Office, which has specific responsibility for the interface between the

 Secretary General and the Executive Committee, the co-ordination of the activities of the Executive Committee, preparation of specialized studies and the implementation of the strategic development plan.

 

4. Translate the text into Ukrainian.

Interpol's Relations with International Organizations

United Nations: Interpol has always worked closely with the United Nations on international economic and social matters, particularly with the Centre for Human Rights and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch. This collaboration, which has developed steadily over the years, was formally recognized in 1971 with the signature of a "Special Arrangement" between the United Nations Economic and Social Council and Interpol. In 1996, Interpol was granted the status of Observer at the UN General Assembly.

Another United Nations body - the UN International Drug Control Program - shares information with the General Secretariat's Drugs Sub-Directorate and participates in its training and co-operation programmes.

United Nations specialized agencies and related institutions

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - on air transport security and on preventing and combating unlawful interference with international civil aviation.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - on matters connected with the Interpol telecommunications network.

UNESCO - on the protection of national artistic and cultural property and the prevention of thefts of works of art.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) - in connection with offences against intellectual property and copyright rules.

World Health Organization (WHO) - on matters relating to the abuse of psychotropic substances.

Other intergovernmental organizations

Interpol has major links with the following organizations:

World Customs Organization (WCO): Interpol maintains close contact with WCO in order to ensure that police and customs officers can work together in spheres where co-operation is essential, particularly in activities to combat illicit drug traffic. A Memorandum of Understanding between the two organizations was

 signed at Interpol Headquarters in Lyons, France, on November 9th 1998.

Council of Europe: An agreement was signed by the two organizations in 1959: since then Interpol has co-operated on crime problems and on the preparation of European conventions aimed at combating crime. Many of the European conventions concluded under the auspices of the Council of Europe contain provisions stating that parties in Member States may use Interpol channels to forward judicial documents.

Secretariat for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES): Since many of Interpol's Member States are trying to protect their fauna and flora, the General Secretariat collaborates with CITES to combat traffic in endangered species. A Memorandum of Understanding between the two organizations was signed on October 15th 1998.