1. Give an oral summary of the information on North Atlantic Treaty Organisation using the following plan:
1. What is NATO?
2. The Fundamental Tasks of the Alliance.
3. Fundamental Operating Principles.
4. The Alliance's Strategic Concept.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
What is NATO?
The North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949 brought into being an Alliance of independent countries with a common interest in maintaining peace and defending their freedom through political solidarity and adequate military defence to deter and, if necessary, repel all possible forms of aggression against them. Created within the framework of Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the inherent right of individual or collective defence, the Alliance is an association of free states united in their determination to preserve their security through mutual guarantees and stable relations with other countries.
NATO is the Organisation which serves the Alliance. It is an inter-governmental organisation in which member countries retain their full sovereignty and independence. The Organisation provides the forum in which they consult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions on political and military matters affecting their security. It provides the structures needed to facilitate consultation and cooperation between them, not only in political fields but also in many other areas where policies can be coordinated in order to fulfil the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty.
NATO's essential purpose is thus to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Based on common values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the Alliance has worked since its inception for the establishment of a
just and lasting peaceful order in Europe. This Alliance objective remains unchanged. NATO also embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of North America is permanently tied to the security of Europe. It is the practical expression of effective collective effort among its members in support of their common interests.
The fundamental operating principle of the Alliance is that of common commitment and mutual cooperation among sovereign states based on the indivisibility of the security of its members. Solidarity within the Alliance, given substance and effect by NATO's daily work in political, military and other spheres, ensures that no member country is forced to rely upon its own national efforts alone in dealing with basic security challenges. Without depriving member states of their right and duty to assume their sovereign responsibilities in the field of defence, the Alliance enables them through collective effort to enhance their ability to realise their essential national security objectives.
The resulting sense of equal security amongst the members of the Alliance, regardless of differences in their circumstances or in their national military capabilities, contributes to overall stability within Europe and thus to the creation of conditions conducive to increased cooperation both among Alliance members and with other countries. It is on this basis that members of the Alliance, together with other states, are developing cooperative structures of security serving the interests of a Europe which is not subject to divisions and is free to pursue its political, economic, social and cultural destiny.
The Fundamental Tasks of the Alliance
The means by which the Alliance carries out its security policies include the maintenance of a military capability sufficient to prevent war and to provide for effective defence; an overall capability to manage successfully crises affecting the security of its members; and active political efforts favouring dialogue with other nations and a cooperative approach to European security, including measures to bring about further progress in the field of arms control and disarmament.
To achieve its essential purpose, the Alliance performs the following fundamental security tasks:
It provides one of the indispensable foundations for stable security in Europe based on the growth of democratic institutions and commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes. It seeks to create an environment in which no country would be able to intimidate or coerce any European nation or to impose hegemony through the threat or use of force.
In accordance with Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, it serves as a transatlantic forum for Allied consultations on any issues affecting the vital interests of its members, including developments which might pose risks to their security. It facilitates appropriate coordination of their efforts in fields of common concern.
It provides deterrence and defence against any form of aggression against the territory of any NATO member state.
It preserves the strategic balance within Europe.
The structures created within NATO enable member countries to coordinate their policies in order to fulfil these complementary tasks. They provide for continuous consultation and cooperation in political, economic and other non-military fields as well as the formulation of joint plans for the common defence; the establishment of the infrastructure needed to enable military forces to operate; and arrangements for joint training programmes and exercises. Underpinning these activities is a complex civilian and military structure involving administrative, budgetary and planning staffs, as well as agencies which have been established by the member countries of the Alliance in order to coordinate work in specialised fields - for example, the communications needed to facilitate political consultation and command and control of military forces and the logistics support needed to sustain military forces.
Fundamental Operating Principles
The fundamental operating principles of the Alliance involve both a common political commitment and a commitment to practical cooperation among sovereign states. The member countries consider their joint security to be indivisible. No individual member country therefore has to rely on its own national efforts and economic resources alone to deal with basic security challenges. However, no nation surrenders the right to fulfil its national obligations towards its people and each continues to assume sovereign responsibility for its own defence. The Alliance enables member countries to enhance their ability to realise essential national security objectives through collective effort. The resulting sense of equal security amongst them, regardless of differences in their circumstances or in their relative national military capabilities, contributes to their overall stability.
The Alliance's Strategic Concept
Europe's security has substantially improved. The threat of massive military confrontation no longer hangs over it. Nevertheless potential risks to security from instability or tension still exist. Against this background, NATO's Strategic Concept reaffirms the core functions of the Alliance including the maintenance of the transatlantic link and of an overall strategic balance in Europe. The Strategic Concept reflects the broad approach to stability and security outlined above. It recognises that security is based on political, economic, social and environmental considerations as well as defence. It reflects the unprecedented opportunity which now exists to achieve the Alliance's long-standing objectives by political means, in keeping with the undertakings made in Articles 2 and 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty. Accordingly, the future security policy of the Alliance can be based on three mutually reinforcing elements, namely: dialogue; cooperation; and the maintenance of a collective defence capability. Each of these elements is designed to ensure that crises affecting European security can be prevented or resolved peacefully.
The military dimension of the Alliance remains an essential factor if these goals are to be achieved. It will continue to reflect a number of fundamental principles:
- The Alliance is purely defensive in purpose.
- Security is indivisible. An attack on one member of the Alliance is an attack upon all. The presence of North American forces in and committed to Europe remains vital to the security of Europe, which is inseparably linked to that of North America.
- NATO's security policy is based on collective defence, including an integrated military structure as well as relevant cooperation and coordination agreements.
- The maintenance of an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces based in Europe will be required for the foreseeable future. In the changed circumstances affecting Europe's security, NATO forces are being adapted to the new strategic environment and are becoming smaller and more flexible. Conventional forces are being substantially reduced and in many cases so is their level of readiness. They are also being made more mobile, to enable them to react to a wider range of contingencies; and they are being reorganised to ensure that they have the flexibility to contribute to crisis management and to enable them to be built up if necessary for the purposes of defence. Multinational forces will in future play a greater role within NATO's integrated military structure.
Nuclear forces are also being greatly reduced. The withdrawal of short-range land-based nuclear weapons from Europe, announced in September 1991, was completed in July 1992. The overall NATO stockpile of substrategic nuclear weapons in Europe is being reduced to about one fifth of the level of the 1990 stockpile. As far as strategic nuclear forces are concerned, far-reaching reciprocal cuts were proposed by the President of the United States in his State of the Union address at the end of January 1992 and additional proposals were made by President Yeltsin. The fundamental purpose of the Alliance's remaining nuclear forces of either category will continue to be political: to preserve peace and prevent war or any kind of coercion.
The Strategic Concept underlines that Alliance security must take account of the global context. It points out risks of a wider nature, including proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, disruption of the flow of vital resources and actions of terrorism and sabotage, which can affect Alliance security interests. The Concept therefore reaffirms the importance of arrangements existing in the Alliance for consultation among the Allies under Article 4 of the Washington Treaty and, where appropriate, coordination of its efforts including its responses to such risks. The Alliance will continue to address broader challenges in its consultations and in the appropriate multilateral forums in the widest possible cooperation with other states.
2. Read and translate the text into your native language:
In international law and diplomatic practice the term "treaty is used in two senses. In a generic sense, it refers to all agreements between states which are of a binding character, and in a restricted sense it refers to a title given to instruments containing such international agreements. Instruments setting out agreements between states bear different titles, such as Treaty, Agreement, Convention, Protocol, Act, Declaration, Statute, Regulations, Provisions, Pact, Covenant, Compromis, Accord, Arrangements, Modus Vivendi, Exchange of Notes and Concordat. It is, however, not obligatory to give a title to an international agreement, as agreements can be concluded even by exchange of letters or telegrams Some of the agreements are highly formal in character whilst others are not. The titles given to international agreements have little significance from the legal point of view, as all international agreements, by whatever name called, are equally binding in nature. In diplomatic literature, the terms "treaty", "convention", and "protocol" are all applied more or less indiscriminately to international agreements Sometimes the same instrument is designated in different places in its text by different terms. There is no obvious explanation for this diversity of terminology. International law prescribes neither the form nor the procedure for the making of international engagements, and consequently their form depends upon the will and convenience of the parties. In practice it is governed also by usage and varies depending on whether agreement is reached between states, heads of states, governments (increasingly used), or particular ministers or departments.
It is not every international instrument, however formal it may be, that would be regarded as a treaty. Unless the instrument creates contractual obligations between two or more states, the essential requirements of a treaty are not fulfilled The binding nature of treaty obligations is the oldest and doubtless the most fundamental rule of international law.
Of all international engagements which are intended to have an obligatory character the most important are "treaties", the term being derived from the French trailer [< L tractare], which means "to negotiate".
The next most solemn type of international engagement is the "convention", derived from the Latin word “conventio“ meaning "agreement". This term is frequently, though not necessarily, employed in connection with agreements to which a large number of countries are parties, and especially to agreements of the law-making type.
The treaty document covers the following parts:
1. The preamble containing:
(a) a list of the heads of state in whose names the treaty is concluded;
(b) a list of plenipotentiaries;
(c) usually a statement of the purposes and objectives of the treaty, sometimes accompanied by a recital of principles and circumstances;
(d) a declaration that the plenipotentiaries have the necessary powers.
2 The text generally containing, in the form of numbered articles, the respective agreements of the signatories. It also indicates:
(a) the requirements for bringing the treaty into force;
(b) its duration;
(c) the place where the exchange of ratifications will take place.
3. The final clauses, specifying that the plenipotentiaries have signed the treaty and have affixed their seals thereto, and including information on:
(a) the number of signed copies;
(b) if in more than one language, the languages used, and that each is equally authentic;
(c) the place and date of the signature.
According to the importance of the treaty, the preamble can be more or less enlarged. The statements in the final clauses are, on the contrary, usually identical.
The provisions of the treaty determine the manner in which and the date on which the treaty enters into force. Where the treaty does not specify a date, there is a presumption that the treaty is intended to come into force as soon as all the negotiating states have consented to be bound by the treaty.
After a treaty is concluded, the written instruments, which provide formal evidence of consent to be bound by ratification, accession, and so on, and also reservations and other declarations, are placed in the custody of a depositary, who may be one or more states, or an international organization. The depositary has functions of considerable importance relating to matters of form, including provision of information as to the time at which the treaty enters into force. The United Nations Secretariat plays a significant role as depositary of multilateral treaties.
As regards treaties, conventions, etc., these, when concluded between two countries, are now ordinarily signed in two texts, viz., in the respective languages of the two countries, though exceptions occur. In the case of treaties of a general nature - multilateral treaties - concluded between many states, the usual practice was to use French, but now French and English. Those concluded under the auspices of the United Nations normally have texts in its official languages, all equally authentic.
The authenticity of the text is established by means of the signatures of the plenipotentiaries. It will depend on the circumstances whether signature alone is sufficient to bring the treaty into force or whether some further step, such as ratification, is necessary.
Sometimes, however, when an appreciable interval occurs between the conclusion of the negotiations and the signature of a treaty, the plenipotentiaries append to it their initials ne varietur as a guarantee of the authenticity of the text.
A Answer the questions:
1. What are the most typical forms of international agreement? 2. What does the term "treaty" imply in a generic and a restricted sense? 3. What is the compositional design of treaties and conventions? 4. Which part of a treaty contains a statement of the purpose? 5. And which part embodies the substantive commitments undertaken by the contracting parties? 6. How is the authenticity of the text established? 7. What languages are used m treaties and other international compacts?
B Suggest the Ukrainian for:
1) accession; 2) the authenticity of the text; 3) a binding international agreement; 4) contractual (treaty) obligations 5) entry into force; 6) the exchange of ratifications; 7) equally authentic; 8) the final clauses of a treaty; 9) a multilateral treaty; 10) the negotiating states; 11) a party to a treaty; 12) the plenipotentiaries; 13) the provisions of a treaty; 14) the signatory governments; 15) under the auspices of the United Nations; 16) to affix one's seal; 17) to place (an instrument) in the custody of a depositary.
3. Study the text and do the following assignements:
a) Point out words and phrases pertaining to the formal style.
b) Precis the text in about one-third of its size.
The North Atlantic Treaty
Washington DC, 4th April 1949
The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments.
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlanticarea.
They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security.
They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty:
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them.
In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, theParties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.
The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened.
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all, and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective selfdefence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually, and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.
For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack:
a) on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian Departments of France(2), on the territory of Turkey or on the islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer;
b) on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or over these territories or any area in Europe in which occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer.
The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.
1 As amended by Article 2 of the Protocol to the North Atlantic
Treaty on the accesion of Greece and Turkey.
2 On 16th January 1963 the Council noted that insofar as the former Algerian Departments of France were concerned the relevant
clauses of this Treaty had become inapplicable as from 3rd July 1962.
Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty.
The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The Council shall be so organised as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The Council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defence committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.
The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any State so invited may become a party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession.
This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible with the Government of the United States of America, which will notify all the other signatories of each deposit. The Treaty shall enter into force between the States which have ratified it as soon as the ratification of the majority of the signatories, including the ratifications of Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited and shall come into effect with respect to other States on the date of the deposit of their ratifications.
After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time 3 The Treaty came into force on 24 August 1949, after the deposition of the ratifications of all signatory states. Thereafter, the Parties shall, if any of them so requests, consult together for the purpose of reviewing the Treaty, having regard for the factors then affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area including the development of universal as well as regional arrangements under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.
After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party may cease to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation has been given to the Government of the United States of America, which will inform the Governments of the other Parties of the deposit of each notice of denunciation.
This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies will be transmitted by that government to the governments of the other
4. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.
1) determined to continue negotiations, 2) expressing their firm resolve to contribute to, 3) firmly believing that; 4) guided by the interests of consolidating peace, 5) proceeding from the close relations of all-round cooperation existing between them, 6) recalling the Declaration of the UN Conference, 7) striving to continue the development of, 8) wishing to contribute to the cause of halting the arms race, 9) have resolved to conclude this Treaty, 10) and have agreed as follows.
4. Study the use of italicized words in different phrases, suggest their Ukrainianequivalents.
a basic ~; a binding ~, a boundary ~, a collective ~; a commercial ~, a demarcation ~; the INF ~ (T. between Ukraine and the USA on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles); an (in) equitable ~; an international ~; a non-aggression ~, a non-proliferation ~; an open ~, a peace ~; a restricted ~; Strategic Offensive Arms Limitation Т.; a trade ~, a universal ~; a ~ of alliance; a ~ of cession; a ~ of commerce and navigation; a ~ of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance; a ~ of guarantee, a ~ of mutual security, a ~ of neutrality; a ~ of unlimited duration, breach of an international ~; the coming of a ~ into force, denunciation of a ~, prolongation of a ~; renunciation of a ~, the substantive articles of a ~; to accede to a ~; to adhere to a ~; to conclude a ~; to denounce a ~; to enter into a ~, to extend the validity of a ~; to initial a ~; to observe a ~, to prolong the validity of a ~, to ratify a ~, to register a ~, to render a ~ invalid, to renounce a ~; to sign a ~, to violate a ~, to withdraw from a ~.
arms-control ~; bilateral ~; cease-fire ~; diplomatic ~; fruitful ~; multilateral ~; peace ~, separate ~; stage by stage ~, top level ~, trade ~; ~ on medium range nuclear force; ~ on a wide range of issues, a new round of ~; a breakdown in the ~, completion of ~, an outcome of ~, postponement of ~: progress of ~; results of ~; by means of ~; in the course of ~; through ~, within the framework of ~, to begin ~, to break off ~; to carry on ~, to complete ~; to conduct ~; to continue ~; to delay ~, to discontinue ~; to enter into ~, to hold ~; to initiate ~; to resume ~, to suspend ~, to torpedo ~, to wreck ~.
to ~ a loan; to ~ a sale, to ~ a treaty, to ~ terms of peace; to ~ for cease-fire, to ~ for peace, to ~ for truce, to ~ from a position of strength.
6. Suggest the English for:
1) безстроковий договір; 2) договір про взаємну безпеку; 3) договір про непоширення ядерної зброї; 4) договір про встановлення кордонів; 5) вступ договору у силу; 6) нерівноправний договір; 7) порушити договір 8) парафувати договір; 9) притримуватися договору; 10) продовжити дію договору.
7. Memorize the archaic words below pertaining to the formal style. Translate into Ukrainian using the following definitions:
hereafter: after this; following this, from now on, in the future; hereat: at this time, as a result of this,
hereby: by or through this; by this means;
herein: in or into this place; in this matter, writing;
hereinafter: below (in this document, speech, etc.);
hereinbefore: in a preceding part (of this document, speech, etc),
hereinto: into this place, Into this matter, condition;
hereof: of this; from this; concerning this;
hereto: to this matter, hereupon: after this, immediately following this; in consequence of this;
herewith: along with this, by this method or means.
8. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the words in bold type.
1. Subject to the provisions in the instruments relating to the meetings specified hereunder the Director-General shall take all necessary steps for the application of the present Regulations 2. The States Parties to the present Covenant have submitted the reports on the progress made in achieving the observance of the rights recognized herein. 3. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee). 4. It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided. 5. The General Conference invites the Director-General to take into account considerations annexed hereto. 6 For the financial, period 1981—1983 the amount of $ 625,374,000 is hereby appropriated for the purposes indicated in the appropriation table. 7. The International Maritime Satellite Organization herein referred to as "the Organization", is hereby established.
9. Translate into English taking note of the words and phrases in bold type.
1. У відповідності з основними зобов'язаннями, що викладені у статті 2 нинішньої Конвенції, держави-учасники зобов'язуються не допускати расової дискримінації у всіх її правах. 2. Генеральний секретар Організації Об'єднаних Націй згідно із статтею 48 повідомляє представників держав-членів ООН про всі поточні зміни у роботі Організації. 3. Задля виконання своїх зобов'язань, що випливають із Статуту ООН і стосуються прав людини та основних свобод, Економічна та Соціальна Рада може вступати у згоду зі спеціалізованими установами, діяльність яких направлена на реалізацію цих прав та свобод. 4. У відповідності з рекомендаціями наради експертів були суттєво підсилені програми у галузі енергетики. 5. Задля виконання резолюції 9.1. секретаріат сприяв підготовці доповідей з обговорюваного питання.
10. Translate into Ukrainian:
International courtesy has established a custom called "rotation in precedence" (1'alternat) which confers on each state the right to occupy, in rotation, the place of honour in signing international acts in which it participates. This means that, when the final documents are drawn up, the first place in the list of the participating powers is given successively to each of the signatory states. Its plenipotentiary moves to the head of the list and signs at the place of honour, that is to say, at the left if the names of the signatories are placed side by side, or at the top if they are disposed vertically. Each state receives the signed original of the convention where its name appears first. This procedure is not normally followed in the signature of multilateral acts, because it is now customary to sign only one original of such documents.
The other plenipotentiaries then sign In the order previously agreed upon. This manner of presentation must be exactly respected in the instruments of ratification, in the official reports of the exchange of instruments of ratification and at the time of the official publication of the texts.
It should be noted that, according to the language-employed for the drafting of a convention, the alphabetic order of the states can vary appreciably.
11. Translate the final clauses of a convention into Ukrainian paying attention to the words and phrases in bold type.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.
DONE AT London this third day of September one thousand nine hundred and seventy-six in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, all the texts being equally authentic, in a single original which shall be deposited with the Depositary, who shall send a certified copy to the Government of each of the States which were invited to attend the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System and to the Government of any other State which signs or accedes to this Convention.
12. Translate into English:
Нинішня Конвенція підлягає реєстрації Генеральним секретарем Організації Об'єднаних Націй у день вступу її у силу.
У ПІДТВЕРДЖЕННЯ ЧОГО нижчепідписані повноправні представники підписали нинішню Конвенцію.
ЗДІЙСНЕНО у Нью-Йорку серпня тридцятого дня, тисяча дев'ятсот вісімдесят п'ятого року у одному примірнику, англійський, китайський, російський, іспанський та французький тексти якого є рівно автентичними; цей примірник депонується у архіві Організації Об'єднаних Націй, і завірені копії його супроводжуються Генеральним секретарем Організації Об'єднаних Націй усім членам Організації Об'єднаних Націй і державам, що не є її членами, згаданим у статті 16 нинішньої Конвенції.