4.1.1. The International Maritime Organization
1. Give an oral summary of the information about IMO in English.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Shipping is perhaps the most international of all the world's great industries - and one of the most dangerous. It has always been recognized that the best way of improving safety at sea is by developing international regulations that are followed by all shipping nations and from the mid-19th century onwards a number of such treaties were adopted.
Several countries proposed that a permanent international body should be established to promote maritime safety more effectively, but it was not until the establishment of the United Nations itself that these hopes were realized. In 1948 an international conference in Geneva adopted a convention formally establishing IMO1. It entered into force in 1958 and the new Organization met for the first time the following year.
Its first task was to adopt a new version of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), the most important of all treaties dealing with maritime safety. This was achieved in 1960 and IMO then turned its attention to such matters as the facilitation of international maritime traffic, load lines and the carriage of dangerous goods.
But although safety was and remains IMO's most important responsibility, a new problem was emerging - pollution. The growth
in the amount of oil being transported by sea and in the size of oil tankers was a particular concern. Pollution prevention was part of IMO's original mandate but in the late 1960s a number of major tanker accidents resulted in further action being taken.
During the next few years IMO introduced a series of measures designed to prevent accidents and to minimize their consequences. It also tackled the environmental threat caused by routine operations such as the cleaning of oil cargo tanks and the disposal of engine room wastes - in tonnage terms a bigger menace than accidents.
The most important of all these measures was a treaty usually known as MARPOL 73/78 - it was adopted in two stages, in 1973 and 1978. It covers not only accidental and operational oil pollution but also pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage and garbage.
Recent changes to the convention will make it necessary for all new tankers to be fitted with double-hulls or a design that provides equivalent cargo protection in the event of a collision or grounding. Since 1 July 1995 these changes have also been applied to existing tankers when they reach 25 years of age. An enhanced programme of surveys for tankers and bulk carriers aged five years and more came into operation on the same day. It is expected that these and other changes will result in many existing ships being scrapped or upgraded in the next few years.
IMO was also given the task of establishing a system for providing compensation to those who had suffered financially as a result of pollution. Two treaties were adopted, in 1969 and 1971, which enabled victims of oil pollution to obtain compensation much more simply and quickly than had been possible before. IMO followed up this success by developing a number of other legal conventions, most of which concerned liability and compensation issues.
Shipping, like all of modern life, has seen many technological innovations and changes. Some of these have presented challenges for the Organization and others opportunities. The enormous strides made in communications technology, for example, have made it possible for IMO to introduce major improvements into the maritime distress system.
In the 1970s a global search and rescue system was initiated. The 1970s also saw the establishment of the International Mobile Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) which has greatly improved the provision of radio and other messages to ship. In 1992 a further advance was made when the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System became operative. When it is fully in force in 1999, it will mean that a ship that is in distress anywhere in the world can be virtually guaranteed assistance, even if its crew does not have time to radio for help, as the message will be transmitted automatically.
Other measures introduced by IMO have concerned the safety of containers, bulk cargoes, liquefied gas tankers and other ship types. Special attention has been paid to crew standards, including the adoption of a special convention on standards of training, certification and watchkeeping.
The adoption of maritime legislation is still IMO's best known responsibility. Around 40 conventions and protocols have been adopted by the Organization and most of them have been amended on several occasions to ensure that they are kept up to date with changes taking place in world shipping.
But adopting treaties is not enough - they have to be put into effect. This is the responsibility of Governments and there is no doubt that the way in which this is done varies considerably from country to country.
IMO has therefore developed a technical co-operation programme which is designed to assist Governments which lack the technical knowledge and resources that are needed to operate a shipping industry successfully. The emphasis of this programme is very much on training and perhaps the best example is the World MaritimeUniversity in Malmц, Sweden, which was established in 1983 and provides advanced training for the men and women involved in maritime administration, education and management.
With a staff of 300 people IMO is one of the smallest of all United Nations agencies. But it has achieved considerable success in achieving its aim of "safer shipping and cleaner oceans." The rate of serious casualties at sea fell appreciably during the 1980s and estimates indicate that oil pollution from ships was cut by around 60% during the same period.
The challenge now facing IMO and its 158 Member States is how to maintain this success at a time when shipping is changing more rapidly than ever before.
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
The term "agreement", like the term "treaty" itself, is used in a number of senses. In a generic sense, it covers any meeting of minds — in this case the minds of two or more international persons. A distinction must always be drawn between agreements intended to have an obligatory character (i. e the assumption of legal rights and duties) and agreements not intended to have such a character. In a restricted sense, the term "agreement" means an agreement intended to have an obligatory character but usually of a less formal nature than a treaty Like treaties, agreements in this restricted sense may be concluded between Heads of States, between States or between Governments
No doubt because of its general and relatively innocuous meaning, "agreement" is the term invariably used to describe understandings intended to have an obligatory character concluded (a) between the United Nations and the specialized agencies (including the "relationship agreements" covered by Articles 57 and 63 of the Charter) and (b) between the specialized agencies themselves ("inter-agency agreements").
A term substantially equivalent to "agreement'' is "arrangement" The view that an "agreement" implies an undertaking somewhat more definite than an "arrangement" is not believed to be correct Other terms sometimes used instead of "agreement", though believed to be substantially similar, are.
(a) memorandum of understanding constituting an agreement,
(c) agreed combined statement,
(d) memorandum constituting an agreement,
(e) joint declaration constituting an agreement. Sometimes agreements are concluded between a Government Department in one country and a Government Department in another. It depends on the circumstances whether such "inter-departmental agreements" are binding under international law or whether they are merely private law contracts.
Agreements are frequently concluded by exchange of notes, sometimes referred to as "letters" In such cases, the representative of one government sends the representative of another government a note setting forth the arrangements proposed or to be agreed upon. The reply agrees to and frequently repeats the terms of the first note.
A temporary or working arrangement made in order to bridge over some difficulty pending a permanent settlement is usually referred to as modus vivendi. This type of a temporary arrangement is made in a most informal way and does not require ratification. Commercial agreements of a temporary nature have often been entered into in the form of a modus vivendi by the United States as well as Great Britain.
Most agreements of a binding nature follow the same compositional design, with some variation, as treaties and other international compacts Generally speaking, "diplomats divide international agreements into three parts. First, the preamble, which states the overall purpose of the act. The second part embodies the substantive commitments undertaken by the parties and comprises most of the "text". The third part is the "final forms", more or less stereotyped, equivalent to the precautions that governments have been traditionally called to take to guarantee juridical regularity of the negotiation and the qualification of the plenipotentiaries, and the specifications of how the agreement shall be brought into force, how it may be terminated and, sometimes, how it may be amended This is what is called the "protocolary" or "formal provisions".
A Answer the questions:
1. What does the term "agreement" imply in a generic and a restricted sense? 2. What is the main distinction between the terms "treaty" and "agreement" used in a restricted sense? 3 What are "inter-agency argeements"? 4. What terms substantially similar to "agreement" are employed in diplomatic practice? 5. What is the general procedure of concluding an agreement by an exchange of notes? 6 What agreements are subject to ratification? 7. What is the compositional design of most agreements of a binding nature?
B Study the use of italicized words indifferent phrases, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.
arms-control ~; bilateral ~, cease-fire ~, commercial ~; cultural exchange ~; intergovernmental ~; interim ~; interstate ~; legally binding ~, long term ~. multilateral ~; multipartite ~; mutual ~; preliminary ~; regional ~, quadri-partite ~; trade ~; trilateral ~: tripartite ~; ~ on the establishment of diplomatic relations, ~ on limiting nuclear weapons, ~on tariffs and trade, ~ of unlimited duration, ~ on a wide range of issues; in accordance with the ~ achieved; to abrogate an ~; to annul an ~, to break an ~; to come to an ~, to conclude an ~, to denounce an ~, to enter into an ~, to honour an ~, to observe an ~; to ratify an ~, to reach ~, to sign an ~, to violate an ~.
international ~ s, interstate ~ s, treaty ~ s; ~ s arising out of (from) the basic provisions (terms) of a treaty, a ~ to refrain from the threat or use of force, to assume a ~, to make no ~ s, to meet one's ~, to shirk one's ~; to undertake a ~, to violate a ~.
C . Suggest the English for:
1) безстрокова угода; 2) тимчасова угода; 3) двостороння угода; 4) договірні зобов'язання; 5) довгострокова угода; 6) міжнародні зобов'язання; 7) міжурядова угода; 8) зобов'язання, що витікають із основних положень договору; 9) угода про культурний обмін; 10) угода про встановлення дипломатичних відносин; 11) угода з широкого кола питань; 12) тристороння угода; 13) юридично обов'язкова угода.
3. Memorize the archaic words below pertaining to the formal style. Translate into Ukrainian using the following definitions:
thereafter: after that in time or sequence; subsequently,
thereat: at that place, on that account, after that,
thereby: by that means; as a result of that;
therefrom: from this (that);
therein: in that place; in that respect;
thereinafter:in the following part (of that document, speech, etc.);
thereinto: into that place; into that matter, condition, etc.;
thereof: of that; concerning that; from that as a cause;
thereon: on that; concerning that subject, immediately following that;
thereto: to that place; in addition to that; besides;
thereupon: soon or immediately after that; concerning that subject;
therewith: in addition to that; immediately thereafter.
3.1 Translate Into Ukrainian paying attention to the words in bold type.
1. All documents signed at the same time as an agreement or which are annexed thereto form a part of the official text. 2. Such declarations shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the parties to the Statute. 3. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupontherein. 5. In case of doubt as to the interpretation and application of any of the foregoing Regulations, the Director-General is authorized to rule thereon. 6. Each State Party may at the time of signature or ratification of this Convention or accession thereto declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article. 7. The United Nations has condemned colonialism and all practices of segregation and discrimination associated therewith. communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Covenant. 4. UNESCO is a specialized agency responsible for taking such action as may be appropriate under its basic instrument for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth
4. Study the plural forms of nouns borrowed from other languages (mostly Latin). Mind that some of them have two plurals (English and foreign, e. g. indexes, indices). The list given below shows the prescribed plurals of some of these nouns in United Nations usage.
addendum - addenda, appendix - appendices, biennium - bienniums, bureau - bureaux, criterion - criteria, curriculum - curricula, datum - data, formula - formulas, forum - forums, genius - geniuses, gymnasium - gymnasiums, honorarium - honorariums, hypothesis - hypotheses, index - indexes, medium - mediums (But: media, for channels of information), memorandum - memoranda, phenomenon - phenomena, referendum - referendums, series - series, spectrum - spectra, stimulus - stimuli, stratum - strata, syllabus - syllabuses, symposium - symposia, synopsis - synopses, thesis - theses.
4.1 Translate Into English paying attention to the number of nouns.
1) у відповідності з критеріями; 2) поширювати дані; 3) включати у навчальний план; 4) демографічні явища; 5) заохочувати використання засобів масової інформації; 6) прийняти порядок дня з внесеними виправленнями; 7) організувати регіональні симпозіуми; 8) широкий спектр відомостей; 9) на протязі попередніх дворічних періодів; 10) використовувати національні мови як засіб навчання
5. Translate into English paying attention to the words and phrases in bold type.
між Урядом України Урядом Республіки Перу про культурне та наукове співробітництво
Уряд України і Уряд Республіки Перу,
бажаючи зміцнювати відношення дружби між народами обох країн шляхом співробітництва в галузі культури, освіти, науки, мистецтва, преси, радіомовлення і телебачення, кінематографії, спорту, а також в інших галузях, пов'язаних з культурною та науковою діяльністю на основі взаємної поваги принципів національного суверенітету, рівноправності і невтручання у внутрішні справи один другого,
згодились на нижченаведене:
Сторони, що домовляються, будуть сприяти взаємному ознайомленню з досягненнями в галузі освіти, науки і культури кожної зі сторін. З цією метою вони будуть заохочувати переклад і поширення літературних творів та наукових праць іншої Сторони, що представляє взаємну зацікавленість, а також обмін інформацією, що відноситься до досягнень в галузі освіти, науки, мистецтва і літератури.
1. Усяка спроба, направлена на те, щоб частково або повністю порушити ззовні територіальну цілісність країни, несумісна з цілями і принципами ООН. 2. Необхідно віддавати пріоритет у програмі соціальних наук їх розвитку у країнах третього світу з тим, щоб дозволити їм краще зрозуміти своє становище. 3. У межах цієї мети ЮНЕСКО доручено виконання в Африці проекту надання допомоги Секретаріату Західноафриканської економічної співдружності. 4. З цією метою необхідно приділяти більше уваги гармонізації політики у галузях освіти та культури. 5. Цей підхід повинен мати на меті розвиток здібності вирішувати сучасні проблеми. 6. Особливу увагу слід приділити міжнародному співробітництву з метою сприяння проведенню у життя довгострокових планів.
6. Translate into Ukrainian.
The Helsinki summit had a mission to perform which was unprecedented in history: to define a code of conduct governing relations among states with different social systems in conditions of detente, with the aim of advancing the process of detente still further. It dealt with standards and principles which were brought forth by the realities of European life and which were voluntarily accepted as a basis for building future relations among states. The Final Act affirms the following ten principles:1. Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty; 2. Refraining from the threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of any state; 3. Inviolability of one another's frontiers and the frontiers of all states in Europe, and refraining at pre sent and in the future from any encroachment on these frontiers; 4. Territorial integrity of States; 5. Peaceful settlement of disputes by means of negotiations, mediation and arbitration; 6. Non intervention in (he internal affairs of other states; 7. Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief; 8. Equal rights and self determination of peoples; 9. Cooperation among States on an equal footing promoting mutual understanding and trust, friendly relations, international peace, security and justice; 10. Fulfilment in good faith of obligations of States under international law