3.1.1. United Nations Specialized Agencies
1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
Constitutions of United Nations Specialized Agencies
The distinctive character of intergovernmental organizations is found in the convention which constituted them, which is commonly called the "constitution" (acte constitutif). This basic document, drawn up in the course of an international conference by official delegates specially appointed by the founding states, and signed in accordance with the special rules practised in such matters, is submitted to the governments which ratify it according to their internal rules. The constitution contains all fundamental rules for the working of the organization and of its permanent administration.
When the United Nations was founded, some of the largest international unions acquired the status of specialized agencies, which operate in that capacity today.
The concept of a "specialized agency" is most fully defined in Article 57 of the United Nations Charter, which states:
1. The various specialized agencies established by intergovernmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provision of Article 63.
2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as "specialized agencies".
It may thus be seen that specialized agencies possess four basic legal attributes: 1) the intergovernmental character of their constituent instruments, 2) wide international responsibilites within their competence; 3) activities in specialized areas provided for by the Constitution (in economic, social, cultural and other fields); 4) a relationship with the United Nations.
This last attribute distinguishes these agencies from other international associations of this type and places them into a separate group of international organizations.
At present there are 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations, each with its own Constitution:
ILO (International Labour Organization) Formulates policies and programmes to improve working conditions and employment opportunities, and sets labour standards used by countries around the world.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization Of The UN) Works to improve agricultural productivity and food security, and to better the living standards of rural populations.
UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Promotes education for all, cultural development, protection of the world’s natural and cultural heritage, international cooperation in science, press freedom and communication.
WHO (World Health Organization) Coordinates programmes aimed at solving health problems and the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health. It works in areas such as immunization, health education and the provision of essential drugs.
World Bank Group Provides loans and technical assistance to developing countries to reduce poverty and advance sustainable economic growth.
IMF (International Monetary Fund) Facilitates international monetary cooperation and financial stability and provides a permanent forum for consultation, advice and assistance on financial issues.
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) Sets international standards necessary for the safety, security and efficiency of air transport and serves as the coordinator for international cooperation in all areas of civil aviation.
UPU (Universal Postal Union) Establishes international regulations for postal services, provides technical assistance and promotes cooperation in postal matters.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Fosters international cooperation to improve telecommunications of all kinds, coordinates usage of radio and TV frequencies, promotes safety measures and conducts research.
WMO (World Meteorological Organization Promotes scientific research on the Earth’s atmosphere and on climate change and facilitates the global exchange of meteorological data.
IMO (International Maritime Organization) Works to improve international shipping procedures, raise standards in marine safety and reduce marine pollution by ships.
WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) Promotes international protection of intellectual property and fosters cooperation on copyrights, trademarks, industrial designs and patents.
IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) Mobilizes financial resources to raise food production and nutrition levels among the poor in developing countries.
UNID (UN Industrial Development Organization) Promotes the industrial advancement of developing countries through technical assistance, advisory services and training.
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) An autonomous intergovernmental organization under the aegis of the UN, works for the safe and peaceful uses of atomic energy.
Reference is often made today to international organizations of the United Nations system. This includes the United Nations itself, its specialized agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and subsidiary organs of the United Nations structured as international organizations, namely, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
The organizational structure of specialized agencies is determined by their constituent instruments. The Constitutions of United Nations specialized agencies as well as their activities are in strict compliance with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law, especially those of jus cogens.
The United Nations specialized agencies engage in the following types of activity: 1) drafting international conventions and regulations on special issues with a view to establishing uniform norms and rules for regulating relations among states in such specialized areas as communications, health, culture, meteorology, etc.; 2) coordinating the activities of individual states in these areas;
3) providing technical assistance to newly independent developing states; 4) exchange of information, etc.
A Answer the questions:
1. What kind of document is a constitution? 2. What rules does a constitution usually contain? 3. When did the largest international unions acquire the status of UN specialized agencies? 4. What is defined in Article 57 of the United Nations Charter? 5. What are UN's special agencies? 6. What legal attributes do the UN specialized agencies possess? 7. How are they distinguished from other international associations of this type? 8. What types of activity do the UN specialized agencies engage in?
B Study the use of italicized words in different phrases, suggest their Russian equivalents:
author's ~; marriage ~; ~ of birth; ~ of character; ~ of death; ~ of health; ~ of origin; ~ of registry; ~ of quality; ~ of weight.
a ~ ied copy; a document ~ ing one's capacity; I ~ this a true copy; this is to ~ that... .
2. Precis the following text:
Constitution of the World Health Organization
The States parties to this Constitution declare, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, that the following principles are basic to the happiness, harmonious relations and security of all peoples:
The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition [...].
The achievement of any State in the promotion and protection of health is of value to all [...].
Accepting these principles, and for the purpose of cooperation among themselves and with others to promote and protect the health of all peoples, the contracting parties agree to the present Constitution and hereby establish the World Health Organization as a specialized agency within the terms of Article 57 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Artiс1e 1. Objective
The objective of the World Health Organization (hereinafter called the Organization) shall be the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.
Article 9. Organs
The work of the Organization shall be carried out by:
(a) The World Health Assembly (herein called the Health Assembly);
(b) The Executive Board (hereinafter called the Board);
(c) The Secretariat
Article 10. The World Health Assembly
The Health Assembly shall be composed of delegates representing Members.
Article 24. The Executive Board
The Board shall consist of twenty four persons designated by as many Members.
Article 30. The Secretariat
The Secretariat shall comprise the Director-General and such technical and administrative staff as the Organization may require
Article 59. Voting
Each Member shall have one vote in the Health Assembly.
Article 78. Entry into Force
Subject to the provisions of Chapter III, this Constitution shall remain open to all States for signature or acceptance.
(a) States may become parties to this Constitution by:
(i) signature without reservation as to approval;
(ii) signature subject to approval followed by acceptance; or
(b) Acceptance shall be effected by the deposit of a formal instrument with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
This Constitution shall come into force when twenty-six Members of the United Nations have become parties to it in accordance with the provisions of Article 79.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned representatives, having been duly authorized for that purpose, sign this Constitution.
DONE in the City of New York this twenty second day of July 1946, in a single copy in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equally authentic. The original texts shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations. The Secretary General of the United Nations will send certified copies to each of the Governments represented at the Conference.
3. Translate into English paying attention to the words and phrases in bold type.
1. Делегати підкреслили необхідність використання можливостей суміжних дисциплін. 2. Необхідно забезпечити їм засоби для проведення відповідних наукових досліджень. 3. Ряд ораторів підкреслили необхідність ув’язування поширення грамотності з потребами розвитку. 4. Він звернув увагу комісії на основні програми у галузі освіти. 5. Ця програма присвячена проблемам підготовки кадрів з урахуванням потреб самоудосконалення. 6. Міжнародні неурядові організації підтримують відношення з ЮНЕСКО. 7. Особлива увага була приділена проблемі посилення взаємодії освіти та зайнятості.
4. Translate into Ukrainian taking note of the words and phrases in bold type.
1. The basic Instrument of an international organization or institution is generally known as the "Constitution" or "Statute". For example, the constituent instruments of the various specialized agencies of the United Nations that have been established by intergovernmental agreements are called their constitutions. 2. The basic instruments of the International Court of Justice and the Council of Europe are called statutes. These documents, whether called constitutions or statutes, are also treaties in the true sense as they denote agreements of a binding nature states concerned. 3. The term "statute" is also used to denote an accessory instrument to a convention setting out certain regulations to be applied. 4. Unesco was established on 4 November 1946, when 20to its Constitution had deposited their instruments of acceptance with the Government of the United Kingdom. 5. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) became a specialized agency in relationship with the United Nations in 1957 While closely associated with the World Bank, it is a separate legal entity, and its funds are distinct from those of the Bank. 6. Although a draft charter was completed in 1948, it was laid aside when it became clear that the necessary ratifications would not be forthcoming. 7. The goal of equality is proclaimed in the UN Charter and in a number of legally binding International Instruments. between the signatories
5. Translate into English making use of the suggested words and phrases.
Офіційна кореспонденція та інші офіційні повідомлення (communi-cations) спеціалізованих установ не підлягають цензурі (censorship). Спеціалізовані установи мають право користуватися шифром (to use codes) і отримувати і відсилати (to dispatch) кореспонденцію через кур’єрів (by courier) або валізи (in sealed begs), до яких застосовуються (which shall have) ті ж імунітети та привілеї, що і до дипломатичних кур’єрів та валіз. Для свого офіційного зв’язку кожна спеціалізована установа користується (to enjoy) на території кожної приєднаної до Конвенції держави (party to this Convention) не менш сприятливих умов, ніж ті, які уряд цієї держави надає (treatment not less favourable than that accorded by ... to) будь-якому іншому уряду, включаючи дипломатичні представництва (diplomatic mission) останнього.